LOOSE AND PEELING PAINT
Remove as much loose and
peeling paint by scraping, wirebrush or
power-washing the surface.
Feather-sand rough edges
smooth until they blend with bare surface.
DIRT, GREASE, OIL,CHALK AND UNDER-EAVE
Remove these deposits by
washing with a detergent solution (TSP) or
commercial cleaner recommended for cleaning
painted surfaces using a sponge or brush.
Protected areas, such as under eaves and
overhangs, need special attention to remove
invisible deposits that can promote a
premature peeling problem. After washing,
thoroughly rinse with clean water and allow
to dry. Power-washing is also a fast,
effective method of removing dirt, chalk,
etc. If a power-washer is used, follow the
manufacturer's recommendations and warnings.
Spotty patches that look
like dirt, but do not come off when scrubbed
with detergent solution, are probably
mildew. Mildew can occur on any side of the
house, but is more likely to grow in shaded
areas or behind shrubbery. It can easily be
identified from other forms of discoloration
by applying a few drops of bleach. If mildew
is present, the black, gray or brown color
will bleach out and disappear within one or
two minutes. Mildew must be killed and
removed before repainting. If the mildew is
not completely removed, the active spores
will continue to grow and may almost
immediately begin to reappear on a recently
repainted surface. Where mildew is present,
apply a solution of one part household
bleach and three parts water, or use a
commercial mildew remover. It is mandatory
to wear rubber gloves, goggles, long-sleeved
shirt and long pants to protect eyes and
skin when using a mildew remover. In
addition, protect grass, trees and shrubs
with plastic covers. CAUTION!! DO NOT MIX
BLEACH WITH AMMONIA OR DETERGENTS CONTAINING
AMMONIA. Follow specific instructions if a
commercial mildew remover is used.
Remove all rust by
sandblasting, wirebrush, steel wool,
sandpaper or naval jelly (rinse thoroughly).
See Iron, Steel and Ferrous Metal section
for SSPC preparation methods.
CRACKS, SPLITS AND OPEN JOINTS
Cracks, or open joints,
where water may enter should be caulked with
a high-quality, paintable acrylic caulk.
Apply primer over caulked area.
Always dull surfaces with
sandpaper or liquid de-glosser. CAUTION
- liquid de-glossers are generally not
recommended on surfaces to be painted with
Replace loose nails with
slightly larger, galvanized nails. Leave
nail heads flush with hardboard surfaces and
counter sink on all other wood surfaces.
Prime with a corrosion resistant primer.
This condition can be
encountered on hardboard surfaces. If a
stain or discoloration persists after
removing dirt and/or mildew, it may be a wax
migration from the siding. It can be
identified by applying a few drops of water,
both to a discolored area and an adjacent
non-discolored area. If the water beads on
the discolored area, but spreads or is
absorbed in the areas around the stain, a
wax migration condition probably exists in
the stained area. In most cases this
discoloration can be removed with a hot
detergent solution (TSP), followed with a
thorough rinsing with clean water. In
extreme cases removing the stain by wiping
the area with a clean rag, wet with mineral
spirits, may be necessary, followed by a
detergent solution (TSP) wash and
clean-water rinse. Repeating either process
may be necessary until clear water ceases to
bead up on the affected area. Prime the
affected area prior to topcoating.
Maintenance painting will
frequently not permit complete removal of
all old coatings prior to repainting a
particular surface. Recognize that any
surface preparation, short of removal of all
old coatings, may compromise the service
life of the new coating system. Check
compatibility of previously painted surfaces
using a test patch with the coating if there
is any doubt on recoatability.
To paint these surfaces,
you must start by solvent cleaning (with
mineral spirits) to remove any oily residue.
Prime with either a good quality latex or
oil primer formulated for these surfaces.
(Exposed to the elements
for at lease 2 months.) If this is possible,
all that is necessary is to wipe it clean
from dirt & prime with oil or latex primer.
Shall be cleaned free of
dirt, oxides and foreign matter. Acid
etching with muriatic acid may be required
to remove oxidation. Prime with an oil based
Remove only loose
tarnish, but not all tarnish needs to be
removed. Then wash with detergent to get rid
of dirt and grease. Rinse well and allow to
dry. Prime with a top quality oil metal
Start by roughing up the
surface with fine sandpaper or emery cloth.
Wash with soap and water, then rinse and
allow to dry. Prime with oil-based metal
STEEL, & FERROUS METAL
NEW: Wipe clean with
mineral spirits to eliminate any oil or
grease. Remove all rust and mill scale.
Prime with a good oil-based metal primer
IRON AND STEEL: If the
old film is in good sound condition, all
that needs to be done is to de-gloss the old
surface with light sanding and clean with
mineral spirits. If the old film is in poor
condition, it should be removed with paint
remover. If metal has rusted, that too must
be removed. Prime all bare spots with
oil-based metal primer
Abrasive Blast Cleaning:
WHITE METAL BLAST
CLEANING (SSPC-SP5, NACE No. 1)
with a gray-white, uniform
metallic color, slightly
roughened to form a suitable
anchor pattern for coatings.
This surface is free of all
oil, grease, dirt, mill
scale, rust, corrosion
products, oxides, paint and
other foreign matter.
NEAR-WHITE BLAST CLEANING (SSPC-SP10,
NACE No. 2)
from which all oil, grease,
dirt, mill scale, rust
corrosion products, oxides,
paint or other foreign
matter have been removed
except for light shadows,
streaks or other
discolorations (of oxide
bonded to metal). At least
95% of any given square inch
has the appearance of "White
Metal," and the remainder is
limited to slight
COMMERCIAL BLAST CLEANING
(SSPC-SP6, NACE No. 3)
from which all oil, grease,
dirt, rust scale and foreign
matter have been removed
except for slight shadows,
streaks or discoloration
caused by rust stain or mill
scale oxide binder. At least
two-thirds of any square
inch shall be free of all
visible residues and the
remainder shall be limited
to light discoloration,
slight staining, or light
residues mentioned above. If
the surface is pitted,
slight residues of rust or
paint are found in the
bottoms of the pits.
BRUSH-OFF BLAST CLEANING (SSPC-SP7,
NACE No. 4)
from which oil, grease,
dirt, loose rust scale,
loose mill scale and loose
paint are removed, but
tightly adhering mill scale,
rust, paint and coatings are
permitted to remain if they
have been exposed to the
abrasive blast pattern, so
that numerous flecks of the
underlying metal are
uniformly distributed over
the entire surface.
WATER BLASTING (NACE No.
of oil, grease, dirt, loose
rust, loose mill scale and
loose paint by water at
pressures of 2000-5000 psi
at a flow of 4-14 gallons
Hand and Power Tool
HAND TOOL CLEANING (SSPC-SP2)
POWER TOOL CLEANING (SSPC-SP3)
methods of preparing metal
surfaces by removing loose
mill scale, loose rust and
loose paint by
scraping or chipping with
hand or power tools.
used for surface preparation
are SSPC-SP1, SOLVENT
describes methods of
removing oil, grease, dirt
and certain chemical
compounds by solvent washing
or vapor de-greasing, and
which describes removal of
mill scale and rust by
High-pressure water blasting
is an effective means of
removing old paint and rust
scale. Abrasive injection or
dry blasting must be used to
achieve an anchor patte
Wash to remove grease
with a detergent solution. Sand lightly to
etch the surface. Prime with epoxy metal
UNPAINTED CONCRETE FLOORS
Floors - Check for any
dampness on floors by placing a rubber mat
down and leaving overnight. Upon inspection,
if dampness occurs on the back side of the
mat, or concrete surface has been darkened
by moisture - Do Not Paint.
New concrete should be allowed to cure 30
days at 75° F.
prior to painting.
All concrete surfaces
should be etched before painting with a
solution of one part muriatic acid and two
parts water. (Wear rubber gloves and goggles
because this solution is hazardous.) Allow
solution to bubble, then rinse well with
clean water. Brush while rinsing to remove
all loose concrete. Allow surface to dry
completely. Additional vacuuming may be
required to remove powdery residue left from
etching. Concrete can also be prepared for
painting by lightly sandblasting.
Your first coat of paint
should be a thinned-down version of your
finish. Thin one pint water per gallon of
latex paints. Thin one pint mineral spirits
per gallon of solvent-based paints. The
topcoat should be used straight out of the
PAINTED CONCRETE OR WOOD FLOORING
Be sure surface is free
from dirt, dust, etc. by sweeping or vacuum
cleaning. Remove grease, oil, floor compound
and wax by chemical cleaning. Scrape
carefully to remove deteriorated coatings.
If remaining coating is glossy or very hard,
sand it lightly for good adhesion of
subsequent coatings. The surface must be
thoroughly dry before coating.
MASONRY (BLOCK, CINDER, AND CONCRETE)
Allow to dry 30 days
under normal drying conditions prior to
painting. If efflorescence or cement dust is
present on masonry and concrete, it should
be removed by etching with a 10% solution of
muriatic acid. Flush off surface, after
etching, with clean water and allow to dry.
If etching is not possible to neutralize
efflorescence; sand, scrape and wire brush;
then coat with masonry conditioner before
painting. Surfaces should also be free of
all dust, dirt and loose or excess mortar.
Porous surfaces should be filled with block
filler before painting. Latex finishes will
afford best results. No special primer is
UNPAINTED STUCCO AND BRICK
This needs no special
preparation. However, stucco should be
allowed to sit and dry thoroughly before it
is painted. If surface is soft or slightly
powdery, first apply one coat of masonry
Apply two coats of
exterior latex paint formulated for masonry.
Should be cleaned and
free from loose paint and all holes should
be patched. Paint with exterior latex.
CERAMIC TILE AND GLAZED BRICK
Wash with detergent, then
go over with a paste of powdered pumice and
water to roughen surface. Paint with a good
quality 2-part epoxy paint.
UNPAINTED EXTERIOR WOOD SURFACES
Should be clean and dry.
Prime and paint as soon as possible. No
painting should be done immediately after a
rain or during foggy weather, or when the
temperature is below 50°
F. Knots and pitch streaks shall be scraped
or burned, sanded and spot primed before
receiving a full coat of primer. All nail
holes or small openings should be filled
after the priming coat is applied.
Prime with a high quality
oil or latex primer. (See cedar and
The main problem with
painting these surfaces is the fact that it
discolors. This is known as tannin bleed. To
control bleed follow these recommendations:
Priming with an alkyd-based primer will
afford better stain blocking characteristics
than a latex primer. In wood containing an
extremely high amount of tannin, two coats
of primer may be necessary.
Before finish is applied
to the panels, they must be cleaned. Apply
an alkyd or latex primer, even if hardboard
is pre-primed, then finish with desired
If glazed, allow at least
two years before painting. If shingles are
porous, treat with masonry conditioner. If
shingles are weathered, remove all dirt and
dust. Prime with latex primer.
Shall be allowed to dry
thoroughly for at least 30 days before
painting. Bare plaster should be dry, cured
and hard. Fill any holes and cracks. Sand
smooth. Paint with latex paint. Primer may
be used if desired. If so, use a latex type.
If previously coated with a cement-based
coating or lime wash, treat first with
Prime with a latex
primer-sealer. Do not use a solvent based
primer since it will raise the fiber of the
Should be well cleaned
before painting. Finish with flat wall or
ceiling latex to retain acoustics.
Spraying is the best way
to paint these surfaces, but brush and
roll-on methods may also be used.
If it has a shiny
surface, dull by sanding lightly and clean
with mineral spirits to remove any wax.
Prime with oil primer.
All finishing lumber and
flooring should be sanded smooth, with the
grain -not across it. Surface blemishes
shall be corrected. If painting use an
oil-based enamel undercoater for priming.